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APA 7th Guide: References

Journal Articles

Author, In. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume#(issue#), pp-pp. 

Digital Object Identifier (DOI) (Bolded for emphasis)

Printz, C. (2012). A case for annual mammography screening. Cancer, 118(6), 1471-1473.

Universal Resource Locater (URL) (Bolded for emphasis)

Emrich, T. E., Arcand, J., & L'abbé, M. R. (2012). Front-of-pack nutrition labeling systems: A missed opportunity? Canadian Journal of Public Health, 103(4), e260-e262.

Article Numbers (Bolded for emphasis)

Oh, H. (2019). Analytical solution to swing equations in power grids. PLOS One, 14(11), Article e0225097.

Advanced Online Publication (Bolded for emphasis)

Galal, O., Tawfik, A. A., Abdalla, N., & Soliman, M. (2019). Fractional CO2 laser versus combined platelet-rich plasma and fractional CO2 laser in treatment of acne scars: Image analysis system evaluation. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology. Advance online publication



Author, In. In. (year). Title of book (#th ed.). Publisher.

Oliver, L. (2011). Delirium. Harper Collins.

Book Chapter

ChapterAuthor, In. In. (year). Title of chapter. In Title of book (#th ed., pp. xx-xx). Publisher.

Blackbourn, L. H. (Ed.). (2015). Pediatric surgery. In Surgical recall (7th ed., pp. 527-583). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Book with a DOI or URL

Author, In. In. (year). Title of book. Publisher. URL or DOI

Mariani-Costantini, M. (2019). Paraganglioma: A multidisciplinary approach. Codon Publications.

Entry in an online reference book

Author, In. In. (year). Entry title. In In. In. Editor (Ed.), Reference title (#th ed.).Publisher. URL or DOI

Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Spring 2019 ed.). Stanford University.


Webpage on a Website

Article on a news website

Author, In. (Year, Month Day). Title of webpage. Title of Website.

Chung, M. (2018, March 26). Hero dog saves man from drowning in river. Yahoo.

Webpage with a group author

Group Author. (date of publication). Title of webpage.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2019, August 14). Handwashing: Do's and don'ts.

Webpage with a group author and date of retrieval (include a date of retrieval only if the webpage is prone to updates without notice or if no publication date (n.d.) is available)

Group Author. (date of publication). Title of webpage. Retrieved Month Day, Year from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Handwashing: Clean hands save lives. Retrieved November 21, 2019 from


More than 20 Authors

Author1, In., Author2, In., Author3, In., Author4, In., Author5, In., Author6, In., Author7, In., Author8, In., Author9, In., Author10, In., Author11, In., Author12, In., Author13, In., Author14, In., Author15, In., Author16, In., Author17, In., Author18, In., Author19, In., … Lastauthor, In. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume#(issue#), page-range. 

Allegra, C. J., Yothers, G., O'Connell, M. J., Beart, R. W., Wozniak, T. F., Pitot, H. C., Shields, A. F., Landry, J. C., Ryan, D. P., Arora, A., Evans, L. S., Bahary, N., Soori, G., Eakle, J. F., Robertson J. M., Moore, D. F., Jr., Mullane, M. R., Marchello, B. T., Ward, P. J., Sharif, S., ... Wolmark, N. (2015). Neoadjuvant 5-FU or capecitabine plus radiation with or without oxaliplatin in rectal cancer patients: A phase III randomized clinical trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute107(11), Article djv248, 25-32.



Citing an image (photograph) from a website

[Photograph of ...]. (Copyright of website where photograph is located). Title of webpage. Title of websitehttp:// ...

[Photograph of Sam Heughan]. (2015). Outlander's Sam Heughan is Sci-Fi Champion 2015. Radio Times

Still image from a movie, found online

[Untitled photograph from the movie Movie Title]. (year). https:// ...

[Photograph from the movie Braveheart]. (2012).

Reference Entry Basics


Citing Online Resources

Uncommon References