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AMA Guide - 11th Edition: References

Explicit instructions for paper format are not given in the AMA manual because publishers provide specific requirements for submitted manuscripts. 

These research paper format recommendations are based on the manual content, but the library staff recommend that you follow any specific formatting instructions provided by your instructor. 

Note: Your professor may have specific or additional requirements not listed in this guide.

AMA Reference Basics

Authors and Groups as Authors

Single Author
Lastname InIn. 

Multiple Authors, up to 6
​Lastname InIn, Lastname InIn, Lastname InIn, Lastname InIn, Lastname InIn, Lastname InIn. 

More than 6 Authors
Lastname InIn, Lastname InIn, Lastname InIn, et al.

Group Author 
Group Name. 

Author and a Group
Lastname InIn; Group Name. 

More than 6 Authors and a Group
Lastname InIn, Lastname InIn, Lastname InIn, et al; Group Name. 

Author punctuation: The only punctuation comes after the initials, a comma between author names and a period after the last author's initials or et al. 
 

Book Titles and Chapters

Book titles are italicized and written with the first letter of each major word capitalized. Articles (a, the), prepositions (at, by), and coordinating conjunctions (and, or, for) are not capitalized unless they are the first word of the title or subtitle. 

​Basic & Clinical Biostatistics.
​Clinical Anatomy: A Case Study Approach. 

Book chapters are written in lower case except for the first word and any proper nouns. ​The word "In" and a colon (:) are inserted before the book title.

Study designs in medical research. In: ​Basic & Clinical Biostatistics. 
 

Journal Titles and Article Titles

Journal titles are italicized and abbreviated using National Library of Medicine (NLM) abbreviations. NLM abbreviations can be found in the NLM Catalog.

For example, the International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy is written as: Int J Clin Pharm.

Article titles are written in lower case except for the first word and proper nouns.

Terminology, the importance of defining. Int J Clin Pharm​. 

Common References: Books & Book Chapters

Citing the Whole Book

Author InIn. Title of Book. Edition number if 2nd edition or later. Publisher name; copyright year.

Oliver L. Delirium​. Harper Collins; 2011.

Citing a Chapter in a Book 

Author InIn. Chapter title. In: Title of Book. Edition number if 2nd edition or later. Publisher name; copyright year:page-page. 

Pickar GD, Abernethy AP, eds. ​Fractions and decimals. In: Dosage Calculations: A Ratio-Proportion Approach​. 4th ed. Cengage Learning; 2016:31-62.

Chapter in a Book Where Individual Chapters have Author/Editor(s) Separate from the Book Editor(s). 

Chapter Author InIn. Chapter title. In: Book Editor InIn, ed. Title of Book. Edition number if 2nd edition or later. Publisher name; copyright year:page-page.

Sicat BL, Brophy GM, Kirkwood CK. Active learning strategies. In: Schwinghammer TL, Koehler JM, eds. Pharmacotherapy Casebook: A Patient-Focused Approach. 9th ed. McGraw-Hill; 2014:9-12. 

Common References: Online Books

Use the appropriate book citation format (whole book, book chapter, book chapter with different author) then include the accessed date and URL.  

Author InIn. Book Title. Edition number. Publisher name; copyright year. Accessed [date]. URL

DiPiro JT,  Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 10th ed. McGraw-Hill; 2017. Accessed January 7, 2019. https://accesspharmacy.mhmedical.com/book.aspx?bookid=1861  

Note: If the ebook version does not give page numbers for individual chapters, omit the page numbers from the citation. 

Social Media References

Facebook

Mayo Clinic Healthy Living Facebook page. Accessed February 10, 2016. https://www.facebook.com/mayoclinichealthylivingprogram/

Twitter 

@AMAManual. The human immunodeficiency virus is widely known by its abbreviation HIV, to the extent that AMA style no longer requires the expansion (especially true in the construction “HIV/AIDS”). Posted October 12, 2018. Accessed October 27, 2018. https://twitter.com/AMAManual/status/1050763170825076737

Blog Entry

Antos D. The percolating proofreader. AMA Style Insider blog. Posted January 14, 2016. Accessed February 10, 2018. http://blog.amamanualofstyle.com/2016/01/14/thepercolatingproofreader2/

Formatting the Reference List

AMA style references appear at the end of the manuscript, are numbered, and listed in the order each reference first appears in the body of the paper.  Include a tab space between the number and the reference entry (not shown below).    

      References

  1. Teixeira MG, Zatz JL. Pharmaceutical Calculations. 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons; 2017.
  2. Stratman RC. Changing your perspective: Transitioning from student to practitioner. In: Murphy JE, ed. Resident Survival Guide. American  College of Clinical Pharmacy; 2011:11-23.
  3. Karpa K, Lehman E, Iskandarani K, Haidet P. Discovering interprofessional competencies within a clinical pharmacology curriculum. J Interprof Educ Pract. 2018;12:17-24. doi:10.1016/j.xjep.2018.05.001 

Journals: DOI or URL?

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a number or identifier assigned to an individual article for users to easily locate online.

The DOI is required when citing journal articles unless the article does not have an DOI.

If no DOI is available, the URL that will take the reader directly to the full text, such as the article page on publisher website, maybe be included.  The URL is preceded by the date of publication, and/or the date last updated if given, and the date you first access the article.  

The accessed date is not required when using the DOI because it is a permanent identifier. 

A DOI or URL should be included for all journal articles, including articles found or accessed in print journal issues. If an article is read in a print journal, locate the DOI or URL online for the reference list. 

Common References: Journal Articles

Journal article with a DOI

Author InIn. Title of article. Journal Name Abbreviation. Year;vol(issue no.):inclusive pages. doi:10.XXX/XXXXXXXX 

van Mil JW, Henman M. Terminology, the importance of defining. Int J Clin Pharm​. 2016;38(3):709-713. doi:10.1007/s11096-016-0294-5

Journal article with a URL (no DOI given)

Author InIn. Title of article. Journal Name Abbreviation. Year;vol(issue no.):inclusive pages. Published [date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date]. http://www.completeurl.com 

Rakel B, Barr JO. Physical modalities in chronic pain management. Nurs Clin North Am. 2003;38(3):477-494. Accessed January 9, 2018. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002964650200097X?via%3Dihub 

Note: Include the "Published [date]. Updated [date]." only if these dates are expressly given on the journal website. 

Accepted manuscript of a journal article published online by the author ahead of print

Author InIn. Title of article. Journal Name Abbreviation. Accepted manuscript. Published online month day, year. doi:10.XXX/XXXXXXXX 

Najjar A, Karaman R. Successes, failures, and future prospects of prodrugs and their clinical impact. Expert Opin Drug Discov. Accepted manuscript. Published online February 4, 2019. doi:10.1080/17460441.2019.1567487

Journal article published online ahead of print (epub ahead of print)

Author InIn. Title of article. Journal Name Abbreviation. Published online month day, year. doi:10.XXX/XXXXXXXX 

Najjar A, Karaman R. Successes, failures, and future prospects of prodrugs and their clinical impact. Expert Opin Drug Discov. Published online February 4, 2019. doi:10.1080/17460441.2019.1567487

Common References: Websites

AMA recommends citing the specific item or page on a website over citing the website as a whole.  

Author InIn or Group or Organization (omit if none is given). Title of the item cited (if none is given, use the name of the organization responsible for the site). Name of the Website. [Date published]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date]. URL 

Charlton G. Internal linking for SEO: examples and best practices. SearchEngineWatch. September 29, 2015. Accessed February 10, 2016. https://searchenginewatch.com/sew/how-to/2428041/internal-linking-for-seo-examples-and-best-practices

International Society for Infectious Diseases. ProMED-mail. Accessed February 10, 2016. http://www.promedmail.org

Note: Include the "[Date published]. Updated [date]." if these dates are available on the website.

Zika travel information. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. January 26, 2016. Updated August 11, 2016. Accessed November 6, 2017.  https://www.cdc.gov/travel/page/zika-travel-information 

Note: Some professors may require that you indicate no publication date is available with "n.d."

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Productive aging and work: a supportive work culture for multi-generational issues. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. n.d. Updated September 15, 2015. Accessed June 16, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/productiveaging/supportiveculture.html

Digital Resources

App

The JAMA Network Challenge app. Version 1.2. American Medical Association. Updated April 27, 2016. 

Podcast Episode

Livingston EH. Editor’s audio summary. JAMA. March 26, 2014. Accessed October 4, 2016. http://jamanetwork.com/learning/audio-player/6514262