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AMA Guide - 11th Edition: In-Text Citations

Explicit instructions for paper format are not given in the AMA manual because publishers provide specific requirements for submitted manuscripts. 

These research paper format recommendations are based on the manual content, but the library staff recommend that you follow any specific formatting instructions provided by your instructor. 

Note: Your professor may have specific or additional requirements not listed in this guide.

In-text Citation Basics

In-text citations are marked using superscript numbers that correspond to the numbered reference list. 

If the author is named in the sentence, the citation number immediately follows the author name. Give only the author surname.

If the author is not named in the sentence, the citation number appears at the end of the sentence immediately following the period or other end punctuation mark. 


Author Names In-Text

One Author

​Murphy1 states...

Two Authors

Murphy and Williams1 report that...

Three or More Authors or Authors and a Group: Three Options

Murphy et al1 support...

Murphy and coauthors1 support...

Murphy and colleagues1 support...

Note: Do not use et al's, instead rewrite the sentence to avoid possessive tense. 

In-Text Citation Examples

In-text citations are marked using superscript numbers that correspond to the numbered reference list. 

Note: Superscript numbers are highlighted here in an effort to make them easier to locate.  They should not be highlighted in your paper. 

In-text citation of a direct quote with the author(s) named in the sentence

Sotos-Prieto et al1 indicate that the "participants' lifestyle and risk factors for cardiovascular disease was assessed and updated every other year."

Corresponding reference entry: 

1. Sotos-Prieto M, Bhupathiraju SN, Mattei J, et al. Association of changes in diet quality with total and cause-specific mortality. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:143-153. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1613502 


In-text citation, summarization with the author(s) not given: Add the superscript number immediately following the period at the end of the sentence. 

In an AMA style reference list, give the author's surname follow by the initials without periods.1 

Corresponding reference entry: 

1. JAMA Network Editors. References. In: AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 11th ed. Oxford University Press; 2020:81-83.


In-text citation, block quote with the author(s) given: Use a block quote for more than 4 lines of text. The block quote is in smaller type, without quotation marks. The first line is indented only if it is the first line of a paragraph in the original text. 

Considering a learning portfolio, Stratman1 states:

This plan enables you to identify learning requirements and subsequently establish short- and long-term goals together with proposals for attaining them. Progress is then monitored, and plans are modified as necessary. A repetitive examination of your goals will help you refine the skills of self-reflection, goal generation, plan development, and follow-through. Some residents struggle with developing these skills. Contributing to this struggle are elements such as personal perspectives, behavior, attitude, lack of experience, lack of prioritization, and lack of guidance. 

The learning portfolio can be a useful tool...(continuation of your paper). 

Corresponding reference entry: 

1. Stratman RC. Changing your perspective: Transitioning from student to practitioner. In: Murphy JE, ed. â€‹Resident Survival Guide. American College of Clinical Pharmacy; 2011:11-23.